Monthly Archives: January 2015

Recuperation (Recovery) of Public Spaces in Venezuela

One of the things we in the left and international media rarely talk about is recuperation of spaces. We had two separate days on this matter on how recuperated public spaces in one municipality in Caracas. Recuperation in Venezuelan plazas, theaters and parks are done holistically and with close consultation with the communities (including people in the barrios).


We, the brigadistas met the Libertador Mayor’s Office representatives to get a good understanding of the implementation of recuperated public spaces. We were accompanied by architects and urban planners who were involved in this grand scheme. The current push of recuperation of public spaces is not merely restoring the glories of the original spaces but creating new spaces for the communities.  For example, identifying gaps within communities such as lack of sports centres.

For this part of city travel, we were shown areas where spaces are restored to former glory. Just outside the Libertador Mayor’s Office lies Venezuela most important square – Plaza Bolivar. Once a dangerous place, today it is fully recovered and a hub of many activities (listening to speeches or just enjoying the company of people). We even saw the Plaza being crowded with people after 8 pm and surprisingly it was safe. Another example was Plaza Diego Ibarra, plaza just in front of Election Commission building (CNE). Once a place of informal markets and insecurity, today the space is clean and host music festivals (the time we traveled, Caracas was hosting Suena Caracas – week long music festival).

Simon Bolivar Statue at the centre of Plaza Bolivar

Simon Bolivar Statue at the centre of Plaza Bolivar

In Caracas, there is a famous Municipal theater and it is great example of  recuperated public spaces. Built in late 1800s, under President Guzman Blanco, it mimicked the glories of European culture and a centre of perfromances. Over the years, the theatre has grown and shrunk and had good and bad times. However, at one point, theatre became a warehouse for street sellers and the its own glory is not being respected. This municipality organized a rescue and today, it is centre of performances and political meetings for the government. The beauty and past glory has been restored to this theatre

Parque El Calvario is located on hilly area and provide a good respite from the chaos and busyness of Caracas. It was once a private estate of rich person and the park structures are designed to European influence of the heydays in Venezuela. Over time, this park got neglected and became dangerous area. Criminals use the park as a transit from the city to the surrounding barrios to run away from the police. Hence, no one dares to go to this dilapidated park. Being a public space potential, the municipality organized a rescue of the park and its former glory has been fully restored. The park has huge entrance arch, hidden aqueduct and fully restored gazebo. This park today has 50-60 tree species and centre of many activities. A mini manual bus takes visitors from the base to the park centre. The winding roads and other lookout point give vistitors very good views of Caracas. While the initial focus of the park was towards European culture, one of the statues found in the park displayed Indigenous resistance leader. (Current Venezuelan government making initatives to includes the role of Indigenous people in society – historically they were excluded)

Famous Indigenous warrior of Venezuela at Parque El Calvario

Famous Indigenous warrior of Venezuela at Parque El Calvario

The view from El Calvario. These two main buildings at centre are known Towers of Silence. One of them host the Election Commission (CNE)

The view from El Calvario. These two main buildings at centre are known Towers of Silence. One of them host the Election Commission (CNE)

Up to 5th December 2014, there are 70 ongoing recuperation public space projects in Libertador. Recently, Caracas manage to recover 1.2 million square metres of public spaces, that is literally half of the size of Libertador municipality.


Tiuna El Fuerte is a name play of the nearby military barracks of Fuerte Tiuna. It was a former parking lot, sandwiched by two roads and close to rough barrios ( neighborhood) in southern Caracas.

The community nearby felt that they want to transform this parking lot as center of culture. (I shall put a YouTube link to understand the context). They used abandoned shipping containers to transform the area. Today, the containers are home to the offices, music studio and tattoo studio.

Young Chavez artwork at Tiuna El Fuerte

Young Chavez artwork at Tiuna El Fuerte

The containers and some walls are fully painted with graffitis – expression of creativity of the artists of the barrio and elsewhere. Even the toilets are housed in the containers and fully painted with graffiti- yes even the urinal bowls

They modified some areas to have ‘underground’ amphitheater and multi level seating areas to watch shows.

Shipping Containers converted to centres of learning in Tiuna El Fuerte

Shipping Containers converted to centres of learning in Tiuna El Fuerte

In some containers, we saw people doing graphic design for clothing production. This Cultural Park – Tiuna El Fuerte- is home to many musical shows, performances, centers of learning (i.e. rap)and political planning. There are many collectives who have many specialities which bring life to area. Since everything us done collectively here, they have a room dedicated to a general Assembly where decisions are made for the park. Since Venezuela is transitioning from representative to participatory democracy, communities around park has communal councils- local democracy. The park has made available the containers for communal councils to hold meetings

Artwork Example at Tiuna El Fuerte

Artwork Example at Tiuna El Fuerte

Since it us hot and humid in Caracas, shipping containers are not ideal place to be in. They modified most of the interiors of the containers to have utility connections, computers and air conditioning. However, they have embarked the process of making the park ecologically friendly place. They have a small urban agriculture – planting various vegetables. Not only that, this also provides clean air in polluted city. They have explored of adding plants across the containers to cool down the interiors. The plan is to do away with air conditioners.

We visited a music studio and met one of the founders of the Tiuna El Fuerte. He showed the transformed container to a decent music studio. It was built donations from private company and others. It provides opportunity to poor people to access previously excluded music recording services. They only charge 1/6 of the market price of usage of the studio!

People working there has mentioned us that they want to be self sufficient in managing the park and not dependent on the government. The Chavista municipality do support initiative. To do so, they sell their own clothes- with in house graphic design, concert tickets etc. However, I want to stress something important.

This is Not Profit Driven institution. The monies from own works in the park and donations here are meant to sustain the park. I give you an example. Not only they do in house graphic design, the park graphic designers actively educate the outside community in how to do graphic design and make own clothes. It is breaking the logic of patents and copyrights.

There are couple of challenges. First, the land status of the property. They are working towards to a complete title deed of the property. Secondly, threat of Metropolitan Mayor. Caracas has 4-5 municipalities and Metropolitan Mayor oversee the five municipalities. It just happened the position is held by opposition. The Opposition Mayor wanted to kick off the Park and the project and replace with a Supermarket.

The community took over the Metropolitan Mayor office and painted the graffiti over the building. The Mayor backed off and did not touch them since. Hence, the need of complete title is important to avoid this eviction style issue in future.

All in all, I realize the importance of defending the revolution. The revolution makes these projects possible.

Some of the photos are credited to one of our brigadista


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Story of Ocumare : Democracy and Development

While the purpose going to Ocumare was for relaxation, the visit to the city served another purpose – to understand politics of the city.

Ocumare, rural town, is not as developed to any major cities in Venezuela (i.e. Maracay, Caracas). They pretty much retain the feel of Spanish colonial era and roads are only paved in the inner city areas. Go slightly out of the city centre, roads become unpaved (like dirt road) connecting houses at the fringe. In Ocumare, there are no street names nor house numbers and the only possible way to navigate is based on landmarks.

Ocumare is Chavista territory and the ruling PSUV (United Socialist Party of Venezuela)  in the municipality supported by UBCH (Units of Battle of Hugo Chavez). It consists of many representatives within the municipality and though they are nominated above, ultimately, it is the grassroots determines whether they are chosen. UBCH has many roles in their areas of operation:

  • To focus on the ideologies. Revolution in Venezuel is mixture of Christian Philosophy, ideas of Simon Bolivar, Simon Rodriguez and Ezequiel Zamora (a leader who fought during the wars between liberals and conservatives)
  • Transferring power of key roles in municipality to the communal councils
  • Managing the technical side of the elections. UBCH and PSUV collaborate in military style organizing to bring voters during elections. They organize the transport and identify who needs transport assistance for party elections.
  • Managing logistics. Set up social productive business which can finance party activities to reduce dependency on central financing (i.e. from Caracas)
  • Identify issues related youth (e.g. school absenteeism and youth employment)
  • Focusing on socio-economic development of the area. For example, working hand-in-hand with the government to bring school and university level of education to the municipality. They are working with government to set up tourism and agricultural institutions in the municipality.

Ocumare Issues:

1) Housing – Ocumare has houses that are cramped with people (of multiple generations). UBCH (through community census) and 6 institutions (Housing Ministry, Commune Ministry, Army, PDVSA and the municipality) identified who needs the houses. For example, 800 housed have been recently approved in Ocumare (which are built in stages)

2) Food supply – UBCH works with federal government food missions to ensure food flows to the city are steady. Cities outside of Caracas are bearing the brunt of food shortages.

The 'port' of Ocumare is an inlet filled with a boat. With collaboration with Belarus, Ocumare will receive a proper pier to organize the boats that are docked

The ‘port’ of Ocumare is an inlet filled with a boat. With collaboration with Belarus, Ocumare will receive a proper pier to organize the boats that are docked

The photo is courtesy of one of our brigadistas

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Story of Ocumare: AfroVenezuelan and Chocolate Story

While the brigade was intense in meetings and running around,  we were fortunate to have a break in between the hectic two weeks. Every year, the vacation in these types of brigade are different. This year, it happens to be in Ocumare de la Costa (Ocumare), Aragua.

We set off early in the morning from Caracas on two cramped taxis on our 4 hour journey to Ocumare. Ocumare,  being on the Caribbean Coast,  is separated from rest of country by mountainous Henri Pittier National park.  On our journey,  we have seen first hand price speculation. Arepa,  the main dish in Venezuela, should cost less than 50 bolivars,  is being charged three to four times of correct price. Even the military,  who are supposed to report or enforce against price speculation, we’re happily eating away in the rest area ( the one selling overpriced Arepa. We have passed the city of Maracay, the capital of Aragua. This city was one of the sites actively participated in 1992 Chavez coup. It was here on our return journey,  we saw with our own eyes,  the world’s cheapest oil.  It was practically free and 32 litres fuel is way cheaper than 50 ml coffee shot.

As we entered the Henri Pittier National park,  we witnessed something unique in Venezuela – military checkpoints on the road.  We are not entering military zone,  but they exist anywhere.

Our place at Ocumare was a decent place and you get the tropical feel in this part of the world. Ants everywhere,  tropical fruit trees,  humidity etc.


Scene at a bay near Ocumare de la Costa


One of the key aspects to this trip to the Caribbean is to examine the role of cacao in the region.  The cacao was first planted in Bahia de Cata (which is next to Ocumare) – in a valley- by the Spanish. Subsequently, these beans were transplanted to Ocumare and Chuao (nearby town , famous for coast and the chocolates). Initially, the African slaves from one tribe were brought into the plantation. However, many ran away from the plantation due to the roughness of the working conditions. To counter this, Spanish brought warring African tribes who have different cultures and segregated them to different cities in the municipality (Costa de La Oro). This created historical division that exists among the AfroVenezuelan society where they clique to their own groups.

Cacao plantations are grown in the valley, surrounded by 3 mountain ranges (east,west and south) and Caribbean to the north.  These lands used to belong to ex-Presidents and dictators which exploited the production of cacao plantations. President Romulo Betancourt in the 1970s made an attempt to break the latifundistas. This included giving land to cacao’s federation. However, the past governments did not follow through on monitoring the progress of land reform. The government did not give any form of training  in plantation and land administration. Back in the day, all the cacao beans were exported via Puerto Cabello (main port, in neighbouring state of Carabobo) to multinationals (i.e. Nestle) and there was no in-house of processing of the beans. Situation began to changes in 1990s and subsequently in the revolution. Revolutionary government began to introduce training  and education to cacao farmers. Land titles were issued to cacao farmers

Since Ocumare is famous tourist site in Venezuela (like Chuao), it brought economic pressure to the cacao farmers. It is more lucrative to work in the tourism industry and the current younger generation opting to work as a taxi driver or anything else but cacao plantation.

Venezuelan Socialist Corporation of Cacao

Venezuelan Socialist Corporation of Cacao

Let’s examine in bit detail on cacao production sovereignty. As mentioned previously, the Venezuelan government gearing the country to produce food materials in house for domestic consumption. We visited a cacao seed bank in Ocumare  (UPC Monasteria – a former monastery converted to a research centre). The seedlings are given to farmers for free (with conditions applied) and cacao seedlings are planted in the farms (the beans would be sent to a centre for processing).

UPC Monasteria

UPC Monasteria

Venezuelan Socialist Corporation of Cacao was set up in 2010 to oversee the production and distribution of cacao products. We visited one of the centres in Ocumare, which happens the receiving end of cacao beans. This centre is where the fermentation and drying of cacao beans is done. The products of this centre are sent to a processing centre (like mini factories)

We visited Bahia de Cata, Afro Venezuelan village in a valley. In this village,there one shop lot row which is collapsed in the middle and two slots is the centre of chocolate products. Afro-Venezuelans working in this mini factory are processing the chocolates in traditional methods (nothing is high-tech here).  It is here we, the brigadistas made a lot of purchases of raw chocolates (one cannot miss opportunities like this). They sold raw chocolate, chocolate liquour, chocolate soap and other. From this factory, they sell their products to the open market or to government owned chocolate entities.

Chocolate factory in Bahia de Cata

Chocolate factory in Bahia de Cata

After visiting chocolate factory, we were given the opportunity to experience Afro-Venezuelan music just outside the factory. They retain much of their African heritage as they have resided the same place for 500 years or so. We met a community leader, Sebastiana, which plays an active role in preserving the oral history of Bahia de Cata. She may have an oral history dating back 200 years and currently teaching (though advanced in age) cultural history  through school theaters. She is currently documenting her stories in a book.

All in all, we have immersed ourselves the importance of food sovereignty and bit of cultural insight on this area.

What did we learn here:

  • Venezuela is investing to ensure cacao is produced from start to end within the country
  • Afro-Venezuelan is culture remains largely preserved.

Credits to one of my brigadistas for providing top quality photos.

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Venezuela got Problems!

Artwork at National Experimental University of Arts in Caracas

Artwork at National Experimental University of Arts (UNEARTE) in Caracas

While our brigade is always focusing on the achievements of the revolution (and fed on positivity of the revolution), I realized from the start, the tour seems to glossing over the problems in the revolution. The only way to find the problems is you have to ask the questions on difficulties they face and how they overcame. Bear in mind, we are not rubbishing or writing off the revolution based on problems

I personally find the meeting with the students  (UNEARTE)was the best in terms of exposing problems in the country. Every leftist and supporter are well versed with the fact that Venezuela achieved 100% literacy, free education , very high enrollment at tertiary level. But this is quantitative strengths, not qualitative improvements. Have you heard any Venezuelan university reaching at top ranks in global university rank? None! In Australia, whatever you think about the problems of education, universities still hold very high repute.

The students we interacted are SUPPORTIVE of the government (Revolutionaries) . However, they are critical to the issues faced in the education. First, there is quality of education at middle school. The government of Venezuela succeeded in popularising education (means access is very high!) but the quality of middle school remains compromised.  For example, middle schools lack specialized teachers to teach key subjects. Moreover, the students also has weak basis of understanding of history. Teaching methods at school do not connect  with the social reality and students are left with knowledge gaps (it is a problem when students reach university level). Teachers at middle school may possess the knowledge but lack the  pedagogical training to convey the message. One of the the proposals to go around the issue is extending middle/high school to 6 years. This is to ensure students are prepared for the particular courses. Secondly, nature of teaching and attitudes of teachers must change too. Recently, national Educational consultation granted space for student movements to raise these matters. This consultation involved students, teachers and workers at education system to identify the issues.

The second problem is the current focus of education systems does not the match the economic reality. This means universities are producing students and skills may not fit the requirements of country’s economic shift. For example, UBV (Bolivarian University) faced a problem of over subscription and under subscription of students in selected courses. At one point, up to 50% of course of UBV were considered to be closed off due to low turnout. University education currently does not focus on specialized science courses which hampers the industrialization process of the country.

The third problem is the entrance exams of university systems. Autonomous Universities though publicly free, have entrance exams to filter student entry. For you to pass the difficult entrance exams, you need to attend pre-entrance courses and pay huge amount money to buy materials.  Sons and daughters of the upper class and the bourgeois are able to pay the necessary means to pass the exams. This creates exclusion for the poorer students as they are denied the resources and capability to enter the autonomous universities. The alternative is to enter public university which is essentially and has good quality service. However, these universities suffer good educational quality. Students proposed to the government of creating a fair entrance exam system for university. This would usher the mafia-style control of entrance exams at autonomous universities.

The fourth problem is the politicization of universities and depoliticization of student movements. Venezuela generally has three types of universities: Public, Autonomous and Private Universities. The government of Venezuela has invested a lot of money to expand the access of public universities to the citizens (free education). Autonomous universities are public institutions but exert a lot of autonomous control on the direction of universities. This creates a big issue as these universities become financial black holes (lack of financial transparency). Money is pumped into the university but there is no transparency how much goes to university services. Hence, their service quality varies.For example, University of Los Andes in Merida has a budget far bigger than GDP of Haiti but complains it lacks funding. When UCV (Central University of Venezuela) received half-yearly financing (instead yearly allocation), the teachers went on strike. The autonomous universities have become bastions of opposition and the autonomous nature of the campus shelters them from government responses. It is noted that these universities do host illegal stuff (i.e. weapons).

Despite the revolutionary nature of the government, the government of Venezuela is pretty much retaining a law 40+ years ago that effectively repress student movements. Many decades ago, back in 4th republic, an upsurge of revolutionary students in Venezuela prompted the government to storm the UCV in the 70s. Hence, university schedules were changed and the repressive university law was introduced. All of these contributed to fragmentation of the student movement in the country and depoliticization of students. The government’s attempt to create unifying left-wing student movement did not go well due to fragmentation. Participation of students in university elections remains low.

During the guarimba (opposition riot back in February 2014), opposition supporters inflitrated Chavista student movement to turn Chavistas against Maduro.  Opposition aligned students joined the guarimba for three reasons: fun, paid to do or defend their class interests. The reaction of revolutionary students to guarimba and violence was to respond in peace (for example, put up cultural shows in midst of troubles).

In conclusion, we need to acknowledge and support the massification of education. However, we need to be aware about the problems of the education system and how Venezuelan overcome them.

What did we learn here:

  • Education access is very high in the country. Free education and massive government programs have ensured access is high for all citizens
  • However, the increased access did not match with qualitative improvements.
  • Students entering university have knowledge gaps due to poor learning at school
  • Tertiary education system (sometimes, primary and secondary) does not match the needs of the country
  • Entrance exams have created an exclusion for poorer sectors of society
  • Universities are very politicized environment and have issues on transparency. However, repressive student laws have fragmented student movements and depoliticized the students
  • Solutions: Extend secondary school education, create fair entrance exams, removal of repressive student laws and to consult with the public to improve the education system.

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Chavez Phenomenon

In Venezuela, Concept of Chavez permeates all sections of society – to be clear for Chavistas. For those who don’t know, Chavez was the former president of Venezuela from 1999-2013. More than president, he had an impact on Venezuela far greater than any president exception of his hero, Simon Bolivar- South America Independence Hero

Chavez has touched everyone’s lives, whether you support Chavez (Chavistas) or hate Chavez (opposition). The country is obsessed with this leader. Let’s examine why?

First Perspective: Chavistas

Artwork at National Experimental University of Arts in Caracas

Artwork at National Experimental University of Arts in Caracas

If you visit Venezuela and talk to any Chavistas, Chavez is not just president nor dead- he passed away due to cancer in 2013. No Chavista can accept the fact he is dead, they say Chavez is not physically present. Every Chavistas believe they are embodiment of Chavez spirit. Hence, Chavez is not dead. Plus, a new thing in Venezuela is paintings of Chavez’s eyes which means He is watching you. Buildings, shirts and posters carry Chavez Eyes. No one simply call Chavez the President. He is the Commandante Eterno – Eternal Commander or Commandante Supreme – Supreme Commander. Chavez’s successor – Nicolas Maduro is the political Commander of Revolution. All in all, Venezuela’s deity is Chavez and every Chavista intents to follow the values of Chavez. Personality Cult of Chavez, not necessarily created (but fostered) by government, dominates the society.

But why Venezuela is obsessed with Chavez? Simon Bolivar had a great dream of having a unified South America which is fair to its people. Unfortunately, his goal failed to be achieved. 300 years of Spanish exploitation, pillaging and dispossession continued with the new oligarchies in South American republics like Venezuela. Afro Venezuelans, peasants, workers and the poor was excluded from reaping benefits of the country’s resources from cacao to oil. This also brought high level of crimes in Venezuela.

Representative Democracy legitimacy was broken during Caracazo of 1989, an uprising against neoliberalism. Chavez, a young soldier, grouped himself with loyalists, staged a coup in 1992 to terminate the national decline. Despite it failed, it made him hero of the poor. For the excluded, Chavez represented a person who understands the exclusion of the poor.

Fast forward to 1999, Chavez and his government began to initiate more social services like health and education to the poor with military help. It is critical here that the lives of the excluded are changing. He reasserted state control on oil industry which allowed money to flow in various social services. From 2003 onwards I believe, government reorganized social services under social missions which provided comprehensive welfare, employment and cultural services. Chavez encouraged participatory democracy and workers control. Chavez’s massive influential weight has huge impact on workers when siding against bureaucracy.

Chavez also had a personal connection with the people. Government propagates the importance of Chavez. Chavez was genuine in changing people’s lives. Hence, all of this led to massive unquestionable personality cult of Chavez. It is consider sacrilegious to break from Chavez’s model or criticize him ( i.e.  “for Maduro to have blamed the late and much-venerated Chávez for allowing the exchange rate to spiral out of control would have been considered virtually sacrilegious.”) This could be unhealthy as Chavez’s words sometimes used to silence criticisms in Chavista movements nowadays and his charismatic persona is manipulated (sometimes) by opposition supporters to confuse Chavista ranks.

Second Perspective : Opposition 

Venezuela, whether you like it or not, is very much dominated by opposition aligned private media. When Chavez was alive, the government and the private media had severe hostile relations. Especially this is true when 2002 coup was dubbed as a media coup, where 4 private television networks actively assisted the overthrow of Chavez briefly. The private media has till now huge fetish on Chavez, more like obsession of hate (Example: Comparing Chavez to Italian Fascist Dictator Benito Mussolini)

The middle and upper class citizens of the country, in my opinion, have been left out from the changes of the country. Previously and still now, Venezuela has two economic worlds (one for the poor and one for the rich). These two worlds also highlight hidden racism that exist in Venezuela (historical economic division is intertwined with racial class hierarchy). Chavez, from mix ethnicity background (not a white descent), has been targeted with racist cartoons (as a monkey) as some sections of the society find difficult to grapple the new change. The president was deemed outsider and Chavez ,who proudly boast of his African and Indigenous heritage, constitutes a threat to established order.As the excluded people in society receive their place and voice through the revolution, dynamic of relationship between poor and rich are changing.

The conservative class despise Chavez due to various nationalization of businesses, close alliance with Cuba (which is despised by the right-wing populace in Latin America) and social programs. Chavez’s anti-business discourse have created ‘a climate of fear‘ in businessmen and shopkeepers. One author also argued the revolution social welfare programs tend to benefit the poor more than middle class (read more here). Chavez’s initiative to collect income tax first time in Venezuelan history created resentment in upper middle class (according to Chavez, upper class resents paying taxes). Worse still, there are constant allegations that opposition supporters who work in the state are fired or lost their jobs due to their political leanings. To fuel the further resentment, opposition aligned media harp every possible negativity on Chavez’s government (it was very sensational during Chavez’s time, now due to economic crisis, the editorial lines have become less strident). Opposition supporters have a tendency to believe in wild or baseless claims on how Chavez control the society. Failure to tackle rising crime in Venezuela has created a climate of insecurity to those who owns and access greater wealth. This creates another level resentment against Chavez.

Back to the first point, Venezuelan upper class societies have condescending and negative view of the those who reside in the shantytowns. They have a tendency that people in the barrios are easily fooled by Chavez’s rhetoric. Upper class (we should say some) perceive the poor are lazy drunks and some people in society are entitled with wealth and others should have their lives defined by poverty and submission. Some of them have a deep fear of the poor (you can sense when you travel in the upper class suburbs in Caracas – where they live in virtual prisons). However, we cannot generalize all middle or upper class as rabid opposition supporters. Even among the poor, there are opposition to Chavez. As mentioned, the revolution is changing the dynamic between these worlds and a section of society

In conclusion, obsession of Chavez is not just about his gigantic charisma and personality. It is very much rooted on the actions he undertook to restructure the society. Unfortunately, the revolution created winners and losers and the stakeholders have owed to a big degree of changes they received to Chavez’s policies. If you talk to Chavista camp, he is venerated like a saint (or God) and he is an unquestionable figure. If you talk to Opposition camp, he is the devil and the person who created disruptions and chaos that Venezuela is going through now. We need to understand one more thing about the obsession of Chavez : historical conditions that created two opposing economic classes in the society. Chavez and the revolution have exposed the divisions far greater in the public. Love or hate him, Venezuela is obsessed with Chavez.

What do we learn here:

  • Chavez is a figure that made unprecedented changes in societal hierarchies and wealth.
  • This meant the revolution has created winners and losers. Peoples’ lives on both divides are dramatically changed
  • To Chavistas, the transformation has been very personal and positive. They are willing to defend Chavez’s legacy
  • To opposition, the transformation has created climate of insecurity and fear. Fueling into the fear, opposition aligned media continually presented a distorted and sensationalist view of Chavez
  • Revolution has exposed deep divisions in the society. Rather focusing Chavez being the root of the divisions, one must understand historical context of the divided Venezuelan Society.

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Venezuelan Election Commission

Upon my arrival in Caracas, I did mention brigade leader that I am very much focused on elections. He told me there is a surprise which he reveal later. Something beyond I thought of: to meet CNE President Tibisay Lucena.

The night before we met her, we received a quick briefing on her role and personal life. She could be considered to be the most powerful woman in Venezuela as she is presiding an institution that determines the fate of the country. Despite a powerful role, she is very easy going and down to earth

The day came and we headed to CNE headquarters. It was housed in 1970s building and underneath it, a mini shopping center that reminded me of Komtar in Penang. Due to controversies associated with CNE and physical attacks on Dr Tibisay (yes Venezuela is quite violent on politics), CNE HQ had tight security with airport scanners deployed.


As we were an international delegation, Dr Tibisay wanted to meet us personally rather sending a representative. While we were waiting, we were served with drinks in modern meeting room by professional kitchen staff. We were introduced to some contacts in CNE meanwhile.

Finally, Dr Tibisay came to her office as traffic delayed her big time. What I was surprised was she was wearing casual clothes to meet an international delegation like us. Unlike other countries, Election Commission (CNE) is an INDEPENDENT branch of government (Venezuela has 5 branches of government). It was created in 1999 when the new constitution was approved and replacing fraudulent and corrupt CSE , the older commission. CNE is composed by 5 to people including Dr Tibisay – the President. The candidates were nominated by civil society groups, university and Citizen branch (e.g. Attorney General) Subsequently, they must be approved by the National Assembly- the Parliament of Venezuela. Strictly independent, I heard 2 out 5 have an opposition slant and remaining have government slant. The fact that Venezuela has totally separate branch for Election Commission has prompted other Latin America to do likewise.

When the new Constitution (1999), a lot of Venezuelans were out of electoral roll and hence excluded from the democracy. CNE made huge strides in voter inclusion where they made every possible attempt to connect with voters. To ensure equality of voting accessibility, each polling district would not have more than 600 voters. Each voting center should be at max of 1 km from residences (this became a massive logistic issue when it came to areas of wetlands, mountains and forests). Previously, it was possible to have a voting centre 46 kilometres from the voters. They have stepped the number of polling tables across the country.

Secondly, CNE made voting system super Secure- I really mean Super Secure. I was informed that Venezuela has 17-18 audit or security checks for elections. Political parties from both spectrums and international observers have full rights and access to implementation of security checks. Venezuela, may as well has the highest random auditing system for ballot check. Since all Venezuelan Elections is DIGITAL, 40 to 50% of votes are randomly checked to match the proper outcomes. CNE and political parties audit the electoral machines.  If one political party wants to modify the auditing system, it must sought cooperation and agreement of EACH political party in Venezuela.  As mentioned previously, voting in Venezuela is done digitally. Hence, biometric scanning is used to unlock the voting machines during voting. However, this becomes an issue for people who have their fingerprints not easily deciphered (i.e. fishermen) or do not have fingers. The biometric scanning is modified to verify based on lower number of points on fingerprints. For those who do not have fingers, the President of Polling table is authorized to unlock the machines. (On a side note, if the President made three errors to unlock the machine, the alarm would ring and CNE would be notified on this matter)

In terms of logistics, handling Venezuela elections is a mammoth task. CNE have to spend a lot of resources in developing and designing software solutions for political candidates. Secondly, prior to elections, they have constant outreach to voters. During my stay in Caracas, I have seen two registration booths in train station and the square (Plaza).
Plus, they have software to count minutes of political ads on television. During election time, they have to deploy Electronic machines to all parts of the country (including the Amazon) . I heard that the voting machines were sent on DONKEYS, boats, helicopters and planes. (On a side note, since they head to remote areas, they work with government agencies to provide government services like vaccinations). In terms of voting results, transmission is done through secure lines such as internet and satellites. Considering around 80% voter participation, they have fast release of results in few hours time.

Beyond constitutional elections, CNE provide services to trade unions, political parties (including opposition ones) and communal councils ( participatory democracy at local levels). CNE provide the technical knowhow and other logistical advice needed for election. The day we visited Dr Tibisay, CNE workers were having their own trade union elections.

I asked her why Venezuela has so many elections in the past 19 years. I think they have around 18 elections- I need to check. This is because the presidential, governor, legislature and mayor terms are all different. Bear in mind, Venezuela experienced an electoral decentralization since 1989. Dr Tibisay gives her personal phone numbers to political parties rep to handle issues directly. She had to organize a way to rescue a candidate in bathroom lockout in rural state of Guarico, hundreds of miles away!

We were informed of the nature of international observation  group. The composition must include people from all spectrums and religions. Candidates for this group must be nominated by institution.

I am keen to sign up, there is one coming up next year. All in all, if there is one thing I fully trust in Venezuela, it would be CNE. I am inspired by the efforts made by CNE to uphold the constitutional voting rights of all Venezuelans

Additional Information:

International Delegation Report on 2009 referendum

Carter Centre Report on CNE and Venezuelan Election System

Summary of Election process and auditing

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